CSS Syntax and Selectors


CSS Syntax

A CSS rule-set consists of a selector and a declaration block:

CSS selector

The selector points to the HTML element you want to style.

The declaration block contains one or more declarations separated by semicolons.

Each declaration includes a CSS property name and a value, separated by a colon.

A CSS declaration always ends with a semicolon, and declaration blocks are surrounded by curly braces.

In the following example all <p> elements will be center-aligned, with a red text color:

Example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
p {
    color: red;
    text-align: center;

</style>
</head>
<body>

<p>Hello World!</p>
<p>This paragraph is styled with CSS.</p>

</body>
</html>

CSS Comments

Comments are used to explain the code, and may help when you edit the source code at a later date. Comments are ignored by browsers.

A CSS comment starts with /* and ends with */. Comments can also span multiple lines:

Example:

p {
    color: red;
    /* This is a single-line comment */
    text-align: center;
}

/* This is
a multi-line
comment */

CSS Selectors

CSS selectors are used to "find" (or select) HTML elements based on their element name, id, class, attribute, and more.


The element Selector

The element selector selects elements based on the element name.

You can select all <p> elements on a page like this (in this case, all <p> elements will be center-aligned, with a red text color):

Example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
p {
    text-align: center;
    color: red;

</style>
</head>
<body>

<p>Every paragraph will be affected by the style.</p>
<p id="para1">Me too!</p>
<p>And me!</p>

</body>
</html>

The id Selector

The id selector uses the id attribute of an HTML element to select a specific element.

An id should be unique within a page, so the id selector is used if you want to select a single, unique element.

To select an element with a specific id, write a hash (#) character, followed by the id of the element.

The style rule below will be applied to the HTML element with id="para1":

Example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
#para1 {
    text-align: center;
    color: red;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<p id="para1">Hello World!</p>
<p>This paragraph is not affected by the style.</p>

</body>
</html>

The class Selector

The class selector selects elements with a specific class attribute.

To select elements with a specific class, write a period (.) character, followed by the name of the class.

In the example below, all HTML elements with class="center" will be red and center-aligned:

Example:

.center {
    text-align: center;
    color: red;
}

You can also specify that only specific HTML elements should be affected by a class.

In the example below, all <p> elements with class="center" will be center-aligned:

Example:

p.center {
    text-align: center;
    color: red;
}

Grouping Selectors

To group selectors, separate each selector with a comma.

In the example below we have grouped the selectors from the code above:

h1, h2, p {
    text-align: center;
    color: red;
}


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